Edible Gymnosperms

Edible Gymnosperms

A gymnosperm, (Greek gymnospermos, =”naked seed”), is a seed that does not have an enclosure. The following gymnosperms are culinary nuts. All but the ginkgo nut are from evergreens.

  • Cycads (Macrozamia )
  • Burrawang nut (Macrozamia communis), a major source of starch for Indigenous Australians around Sydney.
  • Ginkgo nuts (Ginkgo biloba) are a common ingredient in Chinese cooking. They are starchy, low in fat, protein and calories, but high in vitamin C.
  • Araucaria spp.:Bunya nut (Araucaria bidwillii) is native to Queensland, Australia. Nuts are the size of walnuts, and rich in starch.
  • Monkey-puzzle nut (Araucaria araucana) has nuts twice the size of almonds. Rich in starch. Roasted, boiled, eaten raw, or fermented in Chile and Argentina
  • Paraná pine nut (Araucaria angustifolia) (or Brazil pine nut) is an edible seed similar to pine nuts
  • Pine nuts (Pinus) Pine nuts can be toasted and added to salads and are used as an ingredient in pesto, among other regional uses.
  • Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana), common in Central Asia. Nuts are used raw, roasted or in confectionery products
  • Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis), in great demand as an edible nut, with average annual production of 454 to 900 tonnes.
  • Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), a pine-nut yielding species native to Asia
  • Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides), found in Mexico and Arizona. Nuts are eaten raw, roasted, or made into flour
  • Single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) grows in foothills from Mexico to Idaho. Eaten as other pine nuts. Also sometimes ground and made into pancakes
  • Stone pine, or pignolia nut (Pinus pinea) is the most popular commercially important pine nut.

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